For a year now, humanity has been fighting the coronavirus, which is raging all over the planet, claiming millions of lives – according to the latest data, about 106.6 million people have become victims of the deadly virus around the world. (Coronavirus 2021 treatment)
The only way to defeat the coronavirus and return to normal life is considered a vaccine,
and in parallel, drugs are being developed that will help in the treatment of COVID-19.
In the development of a cure for coronavirus, it is still unknown about great successes
– scientists, based on the experience of past years, claim that it takes many years to make a drug.
Sputnik Georgia asked what drugs are used to treat coronavirus,
which of them are effective and efficient, and tells the latest news about developments.
Doctors in the fight against COVID-19 use various drugs, but the only one of them is Dexamethasone,
the effectiveness of which in the treatment of coronavirus has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO).
In particular, this drug reduces the mortality rate among patients placed under ventilators and with severe symptoms of the disease.
Doctors recommend treatment with Dexamethasone for those patients who have severe symptoms for more than seven days in order to prevent an uncontrolled attack by the immune system on their own body.
At the same time, it is noted that one should not take the medicine at earlier stages of the disease, since the drug belongs to the group of corticosteroids,
which suppress the reaction of the immune system and can provoke a severe development of the disease.
Bamlanivimab and REGN-COV2 cocktail
Hope for success in the treatment of coronavirus recently pinned on two antibodies
“Bamlanivimab” from Eli Lilly and the REGN-COV2 cocktail from Regeneron, consisting of two components – basiliximab and imdevimab.
Both drugs have received emergency use status in the United States for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate coronavirus symptoms at risk of becoming severe.
An experimental drug, the REGN-COV2 cocktail, was used in the treatment of President Donald Trump’s 45th coronavirus.
Despite the fact that these funds have not yet passed the EU certification,
Germany purchased 200 thousand doses of both drugs in January for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 in university clinics.
The use of these drugs is considered the most effective at an early stage of the disease, while patients have not yet begun to develop their own antibodies.
Experts say that both agents act as a passive vaccine
– their antibodies prevent the virus from entering the body by binding to it in the place where the spike protein attaches to cells.
When treating with these drugs, side symptoms characteristic of vaccination appear – chills, fever, headache, dizziness, sore throat. The drugs are still being studied, although clinical trials have not yet identified severe adverse symptoms.
“Artemisinin” made on the basis of wormwood extract has been used for the treatment of malaria for more than 20 years.
The effectiveness of drugs made on the basis of wormwood tincture in the treatment of coronavirus was discussed in April last year
– Algerian scientists conducted a study to establish the effectiveness of antimalarial drugs against COVID-19.
Artemisinin has been shown to be more potent in research than Hydroxychloroquine, which had high hopes at the onset of the pandemic. But, unfortunately, the treatment with this drug was ineffective. It can also cause serious side effects and increase the likelihood of death.
The effectiveness of wormwood extract and drugs based on it in the treatment of coronavirus is also being studied in Potsdam
– scientists from the Max Planck Institute have come to the conclusion that “Artemisinin” does not allow the multiplication of SARS-CoV-2 viruses – at least under in vitro laboratory test conditions.
At the same time, the urge to refrain from using the drug in the treatment of coronavirus until its effectiveness is proven as a result of clinical tests.
Doctors urge to use the drug Avigan with the active substance favilavir, registered in Japan in 2014 as a remedy for influenza, with caution. According to research, Avigan is also effective against RNA viruses.
The drug was used to treat Ebola in 2014, and in 2016, the Japanese government arranged for Avigan to ship to Guinea for emergency relief against the Ebola epidemic.
“Avigan” before the coronavirus in Japan did not go on the free market, since it was not a successful competitor for other drugs for influenza
– it was produced only as a backup tool commissioned by the government in case of a pandemic. Since February 2020, the drug has been used in Japanese clinics to treat coronavirus patients.
The medicine, judging by the first preliminary results in Japan, is good for those infected with a mild coronavirus, but is ineffective in severe cases.
The drug is currently approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in China and India. The medicine is also sold in Russia – under the trade name “Avifavir”.
Avigan, in clinical trials, relieves symptoms and shortens the duration of illness,
but can also cause serious side effects, in particular anaphylactic shock and pneumonia. The medicine is contraindicated in pregnant women and nursing mothers, as it can cause malformations in newborns.
There is no unequivocal opinion about the effectiveness of the drug “Ivermectin” – it is usually used to fight parasites and in the treatment of scabies.
The Lancet magazine in early January published the results of trials of the effectiveness of “Ivermectin” in mild symptoms of coronavirus.
The drug, as shown by preclinical tests, prevents the development of new SARS-CoV-2 cells, but it is effective only in high concentrations.
Doctors in a number of countries believe that Ivermectin is effective in the fight against coronavirus.
Scientists, based on clinical data, concluded that the drug can significantly reduce viral load and accelerate recovery in patients with mild to moderate symptoms.
They also hope that the use of this drug will also help avoid hospitalization
and reduce mortality in patients with severe symptoms.
Despite this, the WHO and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) believe
that it is better to refrain from using the drug until its effectiveness in treating COVID-19 is finally proven.
This is one of the drugs that have been treated for the coronavirus by President Donald Trump. Remdesivir was originally intended to fight Ebola, but in May 2020,
the FDA approved the drug to treat severe cases of COVID-19.
And in November, the WHO removed Remdesivir from the list of recommended drugs for the treatment of coronavirus,
saying that there is no evidence that the drug helps to effectively fight the virus. In addition, doctors said that patients who took Remdesivir to treat coronavirus subsequently suffered from kidney problems.
In December, British doctors, doubting the WHO decision,
proved the opposite by curing a patient suffering from a rare form of hereditary immunodeficiency twice with this medicine.
And although there is no unequivocal opinion regarding the effectiveness of this drug,
Remdesivir is still used in many countries in the treatment of coronavirus.
Good results in the fight against coronavirus were shown, according to preliminary data, by “Plytidepsin”
– American scientists said that the drug,
which is being investigated as an anticancer drug, was 27.5 times more effective against coronavirus than the drug “Remdesivir”.
Limited distribution of “Plytidepsin”, better known under the trademark “Aplidin”, received in the 2000s. It is a chemical compound extracted from the ascidian Aplidium albicans, but is now being synthesized artificially.
Four years later, the European Medicines Agency registered the drug as an aid in cancer treatment,
but in 2017 it was denied marketing approval as a drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma due to the high number of side effects and unproven therapeutic effects.
The court annulled this decision in October 2020. The drug, according to the latest data, is undergoing clinical trials.
Tocilizumab and Sarilumab
There is no conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of Tocilizumab and Sarilumab,
which are commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammations, in the fight against coronavirus. These are inhibitors of peptide molecules that the body produces to fight infection.
According to some studies, “Tocilizumab” and “Sarilumab” reduce mortality among patients with severe symptoms,
while others say that the drugs are ineffective. Despite this, the UK government is going to use them to treat coronavirus patients in intensive care.