Coronavirus: what is important to know?

What is Coronavirus?

Coronavirus is a family of RNA viruses that most commonly cause disease in animals and some of them in humans. In humans, the infection is usually mild with symptoms of SARS without causing severe complications.

According to statistics, the causative agents of ARVI are most often:

Rhinoviruses 30-50%

Coronaviruses 10-15%

Influenza 5-15%

RSV 5%

Par influenza 5%

Adenovirus less than 5%

Enter virus less than 5%

Meta pneumo viruses and others – the remaining 20-30%

What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a new type of coronavirus, which people are believed to have contracted from animals. The exact source of the infection has not yet been established.

How dangerous is COVID-19?

Typically, COVID-19 coronavirus infection is mild, especially in children and healthy young people. However, there is a severe form of infection: in about one in five cases, hospitalization is required. Therefore, concern for yourself and your loved ones is justified.

Therefore, it is very important, where possible, to comply with quarantine measures in order to contain the spread of infection and prevent its uncontrolled spread.

How contagious is COVID-19?

A person with coronavirus can infect another 3.3-5.5 people around him.

Suffering from the flu – 1-2 people.

With the Spanish flu – 2.8.

With measles – 12-18.

That is, the coronavirus is 2-3 times less infectious than measles and 2-3 times more infectious than the flu.

How does the virus spread?

When coughing and sneezing

When shaking hands

Through items

The disease is transmitted through small droplets released from the patient’s nose or mouth when coughing or sneezing. These drops fall on objects and surfaces surrounding a person. Other people can become infected by first touching such objects or surfaces and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth.

In addition, infection can occur by inhaling small droplets that are released when a person with COVID-19 coughs or sneezes. For this reason, it is important to stay more than 1 meter from the sick person. The risk of airborne contamination is much lower.

What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

The main symptoms are:

Increased body temperature (> 90% of cases)

Cough (dry or with little phlegm) in 80% of cases

Shortness of breath (in 55% of cases)

Feeling of tightness in the chest (> 20% of cases)

Rare symptoms (at the onset of the disease can occur without an increase in body temperature)

Headaches (8%)

Hemoptysis (5%)

Diarrhea (3%)

Nausea, vomiting

Palpitations

In most people (about 80%), the disease ends with recovery, and no specific therapeutic measures are required. In about one in six cases of COVID-19, severe symptoms develop with the development of respiratory failure.

Older people and people with chronic medical conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes are more likely to develop severe disease.

In the presence of fever, coughing and shortness of breath, an ambulance should be called urgently (103 from a mobile).

How many days have they been sick with coronavirus?

The average duration of a coronavirus infection is 13-22 days:

1-4 days – the above-mentioned first manifestations of the disease are observed, the temperature rises to febrile figures (more than 38०С), and often there are muscle pains;

5-6 days – there is a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath, coughing attacks become longer;

Day 7 – breathing problems worsen;

8-9 days – with a severe course, respiratory failure occurs, requiring oxygen support;

10-11 days – with a favorable option, patients begin to recover, respiratory disorders are less pronounced;

Day 12 – in most patients, the body temperature decreases to normal;

Day 13-22 – gradual recovery, normalization of all body functions.

Unlike other respiratory viral diseases, runny nose is extremely rare with the COVID-19 coronavirus. Also, this disease is not characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain (no more than 4% of cases).

How long is the incubation period?

It can take from 2 to 14 days from contact with the virus to the onset of symptoms, on average 5.

Who is at risk?

The Chinese CDC published a massive study of all cases up to February 11, according to which:

The overall mortality rate is 2.3%.

The highest is in the group of people over 80 years old – 14.8%.

In the group from 70 to 80 years old – 8%.

Not a single child aged 0-9 has died.

In the group of 10–40 years, the mortality rate is 0.2%.

More men died than women: 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively.

Thus, people over 70 are most at risk, especially those who have chronic diseases.

How can older people be protected?

The main task is to isolate them from crowded places:

If possible, send your loved ones to the dacha before summer (it is likely that with the arrival of heat, the epidemic will subside, since the virus is unstable under the influence of ultraviolet radiation).

Stock up on medications that your loved ones take on a regular basis (for blood pressure, diabetes, and so on) to prevent them from going to the pharmacy.

Arrange for the delivery of food and other essentials home.

If necessary, avoid visiting public places – call a taxi or use private transport.

In case of symptoms of malaise, be sure to call an ambulance (103 from your mobile). In the elderly, viral diseases often pass without fever and in a more lubricated form, so try to react promptly even to mild ARVI symptoms.

How stable is the virus under different conditions?

In the external environment, coronaviruses are inactivated from surfaces at +33 ° C in 16 hours, at +56 ° C in 10 minutes;

A study by Italian scientists shows that 70% ethanol, sodium hypochlorite 0.01% and chlorhexidine 1% very quickly (less than 2 minutes) damage the capsid of the virus and it cannot multiply.

In another study tested popular disinfecting hands based on 45% isopropanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mezetroniya ethyl sulfate; based on 80% ethanol; gel based on 85% ethanol; antiviral gel based on 95% ethanol. All hand treatments killed the virus below the detection threshold within 30 seconds.

Coronaviruses persist in aerosol for 8-10 hours, in water – up to 9 days. Against aerosols of coronavirus and to remove it from the surfaces of objects, UV irradiation with “quartz lamps” is effective. But the time for the destruction of the virus by a UV lamp depends on its power and usually ranges from 2 to 15 minutes.

According to WHO, an aerosol capable of infecting others spreads only within a radius of 1 meter around an infected person and coronaviruses are not able to be transported in an aerosol over a greater distance.

Coronaviruses remain infectious for several years in a lyophilized state (at + 4 ° C), in a frozen state (at -70 ° C).

How to protect yourself and others?

Avoid crowded places whenever possible.

If the weather permits, go outside with gloves, use a sanitizer.

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or the crook of your elbow when coughing or sneezing. Throw the tissue immediately into a lidded waste bin and use an alcohol-based hand rub or wash with soap and water.

Do not touch your eyes, nose, and mouth.

Stay at least two meters away from people.

Avoid public transportation.

If possible, use the elevator to avoid touching the railing when walking up the stairs, but do not enter the elevator with other people.

Before entering the house, treat your hands with a sanitizer, then wash your hands with soap and water.

Don’t wear street clothes at home.

Do not call guests and do not go to visit.

Monitor the humidity in the room.

Drink plenty of fluids – dehydration leads to dry mucous membranes and reduces their protective function.

Do not travel to countries with a high risk of an epidemic.

If the temperature rises, the appearance of a cough and difficulty breathing, call an ambulance as soon as possible (103 from a mobile). If you have visited areas with a high risk of infection, inform your doctor.

Take special care of older loved ones. Send grandparents to summer cottages, protect them from going to clinics, pharmacies and shops.

Stock up on medications that you constantly take – for blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, antipyretics, and so on, in order to minimize trips to the pharmacy and protect yourself in case of quarantine.

Arrange for grocery delivery to your home.

What if I have recently visited areas where COVID-19 is spread?

If you feel unwell, stay home until you recover, even if you have mild symptoms such as headache, low temperature (37.3 ° C), or a slight runny nose.

If you ask someone to bring you groceries and go to the store for you, use a mask so as not to infect the person who comes to you.

If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, call the ambulance (103 from your mobile), do not forget to tell the doctor that you have recently returned from the region with

Can a person get COVID-19 from an animal?

A possible source of 2019 ‑ COVid in animals has not yet been identified.

As a precautionary measure, direct contact with animals in public places, as well as touching surfaces that the animals come into contact with, should be avoided.

When handling raw meat, milk and animal organs, care should be taken to avoid cross-contamination with other uncooked foods, and in addition, raw or semi-raw animal products should be avoided.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *